研究:我们的名字会影响我们的外表
文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2019-02-24 06:45 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
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Researchers led by Dr Ruth Mayo and PhD candidate Yonat Zwebner at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem examined whether a person's appearance can be influenced by their given name.
 
耶路撒冷希伯来大学的博士Ruth Mayo和博士候选人Yonat Zwebner带领研究人员研究了一个人的外表是否会受到名字的影响。
 
To do this, they recruited independent observers and showed them color headshot photographs of complete strangers. Then they presented a list of names to the observers and asked them to choose the stranger's real name based on his or her facial appearance.
 
In a series of studies (now reported in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), the observers repeatedly beat the odds1 of correctly identifying a person's name based on their facial appearance alone.
 
For example, upon looking at the face and considering four possible names -- Jacob, Dan, Josef or Nathaniel -- observers correctly chose "Dan" 38 percent of the time, significantly above the 25 percent chance level of a random2 guess.
 
This effect held true even when the researchers controlled for age and ethnicity.Supporting the notion of a self-fulfilling prophecy, the researchers found that observers beat the odds of correctly guessing a person's name even when they were only allowed to see their hairstyle. This suggests that people may choose the hairstyle that fits a stereotype3 associated with their name.
 
The researchers confirmed that observers in a second country and culture were also able to beat the odds. However while observers were good at matching faces to names in their own culture, they were not good at doing so in a foreign culture. This supports the idea that name stereotypes4 are important when matching faces with names.
 
The researchers also found that observers are less good at guessing the given name of people who use a nickname exclusively. This indicates that a person's appearance is affected5 by their name only if they use it, and not if it simply appears on a birth certificate.


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 odds n5czT     
n.让步,机率,可能性,比率;胜败优劣之别
参考例句:
  • The odds are 5 to 1 that she will win.她获胜的机会是五比一。
  • Do you know the odds of winning the lottery once?你知道赢得一次彩票的几率多大吗?
2 random HT9xd     
adj.随机的;任意的;n.偶然的(或随便的)行动
参考例句:
  • The list is arranged in a random order.名单排列不分先后。
  • On random inspection the meat was found to be bad.经抽查,发现肉变质了。
3 stereotype rupwE     
n.固定的形象,陈规,老套,旧框框
参考例句:
  • He's my stereotype of a schoolteacher.他是我心目中的典型教师。
  • There's always been a stereotype about successful businessmen.人们对于成功商人一直都有一种固定印象。
4 stereotypes 1ff39410e7d7a101c62ac42c17e0df24     
n.老套,模式化的见解,有老一套固定想法的人( stereotype的名词复数 )v.把…模式化,使成陈规( stereotype的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  • Such jokes tend to reinforce racial stereotypes. 这样的笑话容易渲染种族偏见。
  • It makes me sick to read over such stereotypes devoid of content. 这种空洞无物的八股调,我看了就讨厌。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
5 affected TzUzg0     
adj.不自然的,假装的
参考例句:
  • She showed an affected interest in our subject.她假装对我们的课题感到兴趣。
  • His manners are affected.他的态度不自然。
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